Sunday, March 22, 2020
The Importance of Humanities The study of humanities can best be described as the manner in which people from different parts of the world as well as different segments in time, interpret and document the human experience. Humanity courses can cover anything from philosophy and literature to art and music, basically any aspect that helps paint a vivid picture of a culture. These courses are definitely needed in education to help students understand the world better, give insight on where their ancestors came from and also to assist them in developing their own beliefs as human beings. Knowledge of these documents as a whole grants us a moment to feel a connection between our past, ourselves and our generation. Through humanity courses we learn about the different attitudes of other cultures which can be seen as extremely beneficial in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s constantly changing society. America has been referred to as a Ã¢â¬Å"giant melting pot,Ã¢â¬ where cultures all over have been blended and placed all in the same place. We will write a custom essay sample on The Importance of Humanities or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page So it is very rare that you will go days without hearing another individual speak a different language from your own or see religious practices that seem weird to us. In fact, because our country is so diverse, most jobs will hire you if you can speak another language as opposed to just being able to speak English. The study of humanities allows us to become more knowledgeable about cultures all over the world. There will come a point in our livesÃ¢â¬â¢ (if we havenÃ¢â¬â¢t experienced it already) that we will have to work with different cultures, whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s a co-worker, a client or just one of our peers in school and understanding a culture will definitely make that process much easier to deal with. It is easy for us to find new people and cultures weird if we arenÃ¢â¬â¢t aware of the world around us. People, who are more acquainted with other cultures and customs, usually are more well-rounded and fearless in traveling to various places beyond the United States borders, which is important in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s global economy. Not only does Humanities give us a better understanding of the world around us, but it also provides us information on whom we are as people. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s kind of like a history course, excluding all the dates and battles, but rather focusing more so on how things come together, sort of like a puzzle. Humanities trace the development of architecture from as early as the middle ages to modern age with skyscrapers made out of steel. This course also provides us with familiarity of different religions, how they started, and where their future might be. It even examines the history of education and how the schools and first universities came to be. Knowing aspects like the ones I stated above can only benefit us by giving us a taste of our past and helping to predict what our future might hold. Lastly, the study of humanities guides us in establishing our own beliefs as people. Like me, most people come to college with pre-existing beliefs, not because they actually believe them, but because they have adopted those beliefs from their family members and peers. Most students practice the same religion and hold the same political views as their care-takers upon arriving to college. Once in college and attending courses such as Humanities, many of those same beliefs you once believed in are now put into question and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll begin to wonder if you really even believe those beliefs or if it was just inherited. After taking a Humanities course you will most likely develop your own beliefs and have an understanding as to why you believe what you believe. As a result, it is obvious that it is important to study Humanities. Humanities gives people a sense of where they derived from and a feeling of belonging, no matter what their background may have been. It blends us all together like a bunch of different fruits made into a smoothie and allows us to grow as individuals and improve our society. If humanities were not put into effect, our civilization would be at a standstill. The Importance of Humanities free essay sample The study of humanities can best be described as the manner in which people from different parts of the world as well as different segments in time, interpret and document the human experience. Humanity courses can cover anything from philosophy and literature to art and music, basically any aspect that helps paint a vivid picture of a culture. These courses are definitely needed in education to help students understand the world better, give insight on where their ancestors came from and also to assist them in developing their own beliefs as human beings. Knowledge of these documents as a whole grants us a moment to feel a connection between our past, ourselves and our generation. Through humanity courses we learn about the different attitudes of other cultures which can be seen as extremely beneficial in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s constantly changing society. America has been referred to as a Ã¢â¬Å"giant melting pot,Ã¢â¬ where cultures all over have been blended and placed all in the same place. We will write a custom essay sample on The Importance of Humanities or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page So it is very rare that you will go days without hearing another individual speak a different language from your own or see religious practices that seem weird to us. In fact, because our country is so diverse, most jobs will hire you if you can speak another language as opposed to just being able to speak English. The study of humanities allows us to become more knowledgeable about cultures all over the world. There will come a point in our livesÃ¢â¬â¢ (if we havenÃ¢â¬â¢t experienced it already) that we will have to work with different cultures, whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s a co-worker, a client or just one of our peers in school and understanding a culture will definitely make that process much easier to deal with. It is easy for us to find new people and cultures weird if we arenÃ¢â¬â¢t aware of the world around us. People, who are more acquainted with other cultures and customs, usually are more well-rounded and fearless in traveling to various places beyond the United States borders, which is important in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s global economy. Not only does Humanities give us a better understanding of the world around us, but it also provides us information on whom we are as people. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s kind of like a history course, excluding all the dates and battles, but rather focusing more so on how things come together, sort of like a puzzle. Humanities trace the development of architecture from as early as the middle ages to modern age with skyscrapers made out of steel. This course also provides us with familiarity of different religions, how they started, and where their future might be. It even examines the history of education and how the schools and first universities came to be. Knowing aspects like the ones I stated above can only benefit us by giving us a taste of our past and helping to predict what our future might hold. Lastly, the study of humanities guides us in establishing our own beliefs as people. Like me, most people come to college with pre-existing beliefs, not because they actually believe them, but because they have adopted those beliefs from their family members and peers. Most students practice the same religion and hold the same political views as their care-takers upon arriving to college. Once in college and attending courses such as Humanities, many of those same beliefs you once believed in are now put into question and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll begin to wonder if you really even believe those beliefs or if it was just inherited. After taking a Humanities course you will most likely develop your own beliefs and have an understanding as to why you believe what you believe. As a result, it is obvious that it is important to study Humanities. Humanities gives people a sense of where they derived from and a feeling of belonging, no matter what their background may have been. It blends us all together like a bunch of different fruits made into a smoothie and allows us to grow as individuals and improve our society. If humanities were not put into effect, our civilization would be at a standstill.
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Euthanasia Suicide and Patients Essay Euthanasia: Suicide and Patients Essay Human euthanasia, also known as assisted suicide is a controversial topic that has affected countries worldwide for an extended period of time. Assisted suicide is legal in four countries and the states of Washington and Oregon in the United States of America. Many people would argue that the decision to kill oneself is strictly a private choice that society should not have control over. That opinion assumes that suicide results when competent individuals make independent, reasonable decisions to die that society should not be interfering with. Experts whom have studied suicide found the basic assumption being made in regard to assisted suicide are incorrect. A British study involving the examination of medical records determined, Ã¢â¬Å"93% of the patients studied whom either committed suicide themselves or went through with a physician assisted suicide, were mentally ill at the time of their death.Ã¢â¬ 1 This suggests that the majority of people who undergo this treatment are not in the proper state of mind to make a life altering decision. Assisted suicide goes against the beliefs held in several religions and those generally accepted in regard to human morality. Individuals that may be depressed or whom are suffering from mental disparity due to illness may wish to die at the moment, but may change their minds further down the road, an error the doctors cannot undo. With the advancements made in current medical technology and medicine, the road to recovery for a terminally ill patient is possible. By rendering assisted suicide illegal it may prevent many unnecessary or immoral deaths from taking place thereby opening the road to recovery for patients suffering with an issue that would lead them to seek death as the sole solution. Ending a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life by way of murder is a practice frowned upon across the world. Suspects who commit murder may face charges and possible jail sentences, thus why shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t a physician who assisted in a suicide face the same potential punishment? People believe that it is morally wrong to commit suicide; therefore it is also morally wrong to aid someone in the act of taking their own life. The decision to take away someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life should be entered into with significant consideration and not completed utilizing a procedure in which the individual drinks pentobarbital, a drug, that when ingested or injected will end ones life. Assisted suicide goes against the beliefs held in many religions that suggest God created human life and therefore God is the only figure who should be permitted to end a humanÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Most religions believe that those who become vulnerable through illness or disability, deserve special care and protection, and that the proper end of life should be in a comfortable, monitored environment rather than allowing the act of euthanasia to occur. Christianity beliefs are that, Ã¢â¬Å"Human life is a sacred thing, which should be protected and preserved no matte r what state of health that person is currently in since God has a plan for all living and interfering with the plan should not be tolerableÃ¢â¬ .2 Allowing physician assisted suicide to be legal goes against Christian beliefs and human morality and values as life is viewed as a privilege that should not be taken away so easily. Virtually all religions state that God forbids any form of death sentence or the assisted killing of an innocent person as that is unlawful. There is also the argument of an individual choosing death over life as not being in the proper state of mind. The majority of terminally ill patients whom have suffered for a long period of time may have an underlying mental illness. Some psychologists state, Ã¢â¬Å"An attempt at suicide is often a challenge to determine if anyone really cares for the involved person. Seeking physician assisted suicide, rather than just acting solely to kill oneself, may well be a subconscious manifestation of that precise issue.Ã¢ â¬ 3 By giving people the choice for a physician assisted suicide
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Potential Hardship that young adult encounter after aging out of foster care - Dissertation Example It is evident from the study that since the inception of foster care in the United States, over half a million children have been placed in these homes from the end of the year 2000. The authors continue to state that these numbers have been decreasing in the recent past with 423,773 children being in this care in the year 2009. This represents a 20% drop in their numbers during that decade, and the number of African American children in this care accounts for 40% of the children, whereas Whites account for 20% of children under foster care. The remaining percentage of children in foster care is composed of children from the Hispanic community. Other reports by Krebs and Pitcoff indicate that most of the children who enter this care do so involuntarily. This occurs when the children encounter neglect from their guardians, and are bound to encounter many physical or psychosomatic problems. However, the placement of children in foster care could also be voluntary, and could occur when their guardians are unable to cater for their needs. A survey carried out in the state of Missouri on 325 children to ascertain the differences that existed after foster care found out that their mental abilities decreased by about 60% after a month of leaving this care. Many of the persons leaving foster care withdraw from taking medication for their mental problems out of their own consent. The mental abilities of the young people leaving the care centers decrease because of various circumstances. These circumstances include the absence of managers for controlling them, the aging out from the pediatric systems and shifts in decision-making as the child matures. Shifts in the care for the young people from foster homes to insurance companies who are responsible for covering the expenses incurred on their care is another cause of reduced mental abilities, and this is because the children are no longer funded (Meltzer, 2003). The problem identified is that most states do not continue offering foster care services for children who have left the foster homes (Stott, 2007). For this reason, governments are urged to continue providing Medicare through the Medicaid scheme, which guarantees medical attention for the vulnerable youth leaving foster care (Ward, Henderson and Pearson, 2003). There are several states in America, which offer the Medicaid option including Missouri, Michigan, Massachusetts, West Virginia and Minnesota among others (Stott, 2007). The inability of various foster care homes to account for many of the children who leave their homes arises from the fact that most are incarcerated, die or join the military and dropout of these systems (Meltzer, 2003). Reports by Ward, Henderson and Pearson (2003) in their book Ã¢â¬Å"One Problem among Many: Drug Use among Care Leavers in Transition to Independent LivingÃ¢â¬ indicate that many youths encounter problems in their access and use of medication. There is a decline in
Monday, February 3, 2020
Early Childhood Studies - Essay Example However, research has shown that this does not have immediate effect on speech development in children hence they are not necessary though they are helpful. From the above argument, it has been suggested that language acquisition by children is promoted through speaking to children in special way. Mothers often speak in a slow way such that they carefully articulate basic vocabulary which is easier to understand by the children. Grady (2005) calls this motherese where the mother speaks in a slow way so the child can grasp the meaning of speech or the words uttered. To a greater extent, it can be noted that this aspect of speech development is very important given that it is commonly believed that the child adopts a language from the mother. This is the reason why the childÃ¢â¬â¢s first language is called the mother tongue in different social dispositions. Though this aspect of motherese is not necessary in speech development, it has been observed that it significantly contributes t o the development of speech in young children. In some cultures, adults do not simplify their language when they are talking to the children but these children still learn their language perfectly. There is a misconception among people that children require special instructions for them to learn a language. According to the author of the given article, children can still learn a language without special help from the parent but there is one external condition that has to exist in as far as language acquisition is concerned. The author argues that children need to hear sentences they can actually understand before they know a lot about the language they are... This paper approves that it can be argued that language is acquired given that in some instances, it may not be possible to create a formal learning environment for infants whose minds are still very young to be reasonable enough to learn a language at a faster rate. It is pretty difficult for a child to be taught to create a meaningful sentence at a tender age as this can be confusing. Children often construct meaningful sentences without using the same words from their parents which brings us to the conclusion that language acquisition is not an art of imitation. This report makes a conclusion that it can be observed that there are different misconceptions with regards to language acquisition and learning in children. Some scholars believe that language is acquired naturally while others believe that it is learnt from the people around. However, a closer analysis of different concepts proposed by different scholars show that there is no agreed way about how children learn a language. It can also be said that the external environment has a bearing on the way children learn or acquire their first language. The culture of a particular group has a strong influence on the way at which a child acquires a language. Normally, the behaviour of people is shaped by their cultural values as well as their language. It is also easier for the children to learn to construct meaningful sentences through the guidance of someone but this does not necessarily mean to say that they have to undergo a formal learning programme as this can be done subconsciously. Yo ung children are capable of learning from the social environment around them.
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Examining The Computer History Of Microsoft Information Technology Essay Bill Gates is one of the richest people in the world. The way he made his money is by developing technology. He and Paul Allen were the two people who founded Microsoft. But before they founded Microsoft, they worked on the IBM-PC model 5150 and gave IBM a one the PC-DOS operating system for a onetime fee of 50,000 dollars. But they had to make a deal with Seattle Computer Products in order to get this operating system. Then in 1985, with the help of IBM, Gates produced the first retail version on Windows, which was called OS/2. After in 1991 Gates said that the OS/2 partnership was over and he would start working on Windows NT. Windows NT was released in 1993, this version was the first 32-bit version on Windows. From that point on, he helped create multiple other operating systems like windows 95 which introduced the first novel start menu and the included the Internet Explorer internet browser. Later in 2000 Gates stepped down as C.E.O of Microsoft and remained as chairman of the board and chief software architect. In 2006, Gates openly stated that he had many a decision to devote his time more towards his charitable foundation. Gates is still the companys chairman. That is how Bill Gates has made of a contribution to technology. Who is this man? This man was the co-founder and current CEO of Apple Inc. Apple is the innovator of iPods, iPads, iPhones and Mac computers. Apple had other projects like the Apple I and Apple Lisa but they werent as successful. The Macintosh was introduced in 1984. This model included a mouse and a graphical user interface rather than the command-line interface. Apple also created the iPod which allowed people to listen to all their favourite music, and view all their favourite movies and pictures. When the iPod-touch was released it allowed people to do all that and surf the internet with a Wi-Fi connection and download tonnes of apps from the app store on the iPod-touch. The iPhone is the same thing as an iPod-touch but you can text and call people. The iPad is like the iPod-touch but it is larger and you can get 3G service on it. Therefore, I think Steve Jobs has made a significant contribution towards technology. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steve_Jobs http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPod http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphical_user_interface http://www.woopidoo.com/biography/steve-jobs/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Inc. Magnetic Tape Magnetic Tape is something people use to record music or videos on. This tape was developed in Germany. Separately bought devices can play their music or videos on the Magnetic Tape. Examples of these devices would be VCRs and audio cassette players. The Magnetic Tape was intended to record music at first. This tape was original made by Valdemar Poulsen in 1898. He used iron oxide powder, coating a long strip of paper. But was it was further devolved by a German electronic company called AGE (Allgemeine Elektricitata-Gesellschaft) in 1933. AEG also manufactured the recording machines as well. Later on, people wanted to record video on the magnetic tape, so Ampex made a breakthrough innovation. They used a spinning recording head and a normal tape speeds to achieve a very high head to tape speed that could record and reproduce the high bandwidth. Later on, Sony devolved a helical scan and put it in the tape reels. Finally, these tapes are used for data storage. Some good examples woul d be Computers in 1951. Therefore I think the invention of magnetic tape has contributed to the development of technology greatly. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_tape http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-magnetic-tape.htm http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Magnetic_tape Howard Aiken Howard Akien is the original conceptual designer of the Harvard Mark I computer made by IBM. This computer was built using 765,000 components and a lot of wiring. It was 16m in length and 2.4m in height. Also, it weighed over 4500 kg. This computer was made for calculations. It had 60 sets of 24 switches for entering numbers manually. Also, each number only could be 23 digits long. This machine could calculate 3 additions or subtractions in a second, while a multiplication took 6 seconds, a division taking 15.3. But trigonometric function took over a minute. The way that this computer got its information was from punched paper tape. Therefore, I believe that this computer made a great contribution to technology, as the base of our modern day calculator and computer languages were founded from this innovation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_H._Aiken http://www.thocp.net/biographies/aiken_howard.html http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa052198.htm Freddy Williams Freddy Williams is an English engineer. He and Tom Kilburn created the Williams or Williams-Kilburn tube, in 1947. This tube was made to store binary data. Each one of these tubes could hold around 512-1024 bits of data. The way this machine stored data was quite fascinating. There would be a cathode ray tube and dots would be drawn on it. The dot becomes positively charged and the area around became negatively charged for a brief moment. This energy could not be transferred and the energy would remain on the surface of the tube for a fraction of a second. This let the device act as the computer memory. The only way to erase a dot is by drawing another dot beside it. Once the memory is safe is when the computer reads the information. Therefore, I believe that this device made a significant contribution to technology because this device laid down the foundation of current day RAM to be developed. http://www.computer50.org/kgill/williams/williams.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederic_Calland_Williams http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Williams_tube EDSAC An EDSAC or an Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator was a British computer. The EDSAC was made by Maurice Wilkes and his team at the University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory. This was the first practical stored-program computer. This computer uses mercury delay lines for memory. The memory has 1024 locations, while each location has 18 bits. The CPU can hold 71 bits. The only commands that this computer had were: to add, subtract, multiply, collate, shit left, shift right, load multiplier register, store, accumulator, condition skip, read input tape, print character, round accumulator, no-op and stop. The initial orders were hand written on a set of uniselector switches and from there they were loaded into the low words memory at start up. This was the worlds assembler. People say at that moment the global software industry started, people would prepare their programs by punching them on a paper tape. Soon after, the program will be able to be used at this time the pa per was hung on length of line strung up near the paper tape reader. Therefore, I believe that the EDSAC made an important contribution to programming. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_Delay_Storage_Automatic_Calculator http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mr10/Edsac/edsacposter.pdf http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_uses_of_edsac Jacquard loom The Jacquard loom was invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801. This loom is controlled by punched cards. There are multiple holes punched in each card that make a design of the textile. The way that a hole is punched into the card is by the Bolus hook. Each hook is connected by a harness. These days Jacquards looms are controlled by computers and these computers can have thousands of hooks. The Jacquard loom was the first machine that had the ability to punch cards to control a sequence of operations. This helped the development of computer programming because now programmers didnt have to make their own holes; they could make holes using this loom. Also they could make the holes faster. In conclusion, the Jacquards loom helped the development of programming. http://www.thetapestryhouse.com/aboutproducts/jacquard-loom.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacquard_loom http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/jacquard.htm The Machine That Changed the World Scavenger Hunt Using an internet search engine, find a WWW sites that contains the following statements: 1. Daughter of Lord Byron, mentored by Babbage, called by some the first programmer. Answer: Augusta Ada Lovelace URL: http://wiki.answers.com/ 2. Had a job to speed up the 1890 census and devised a punched-card machine. Answer: Herman Hollerith URL: http://wiki.answers.com/ 3. In 1924 Thomas J. Watson changed the companys name to this name. Answer: International Business Machines. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_J._Watson 4. A 1973 Federal Court ruling officially credited Dr. John V. Atanasoff with this invention. Answer: first automatic electronic digital computer URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Vincent_Atanasoff 5. Probably the original mechanical counting device traced back 5,000 years. Answer: The abacus URL: http://www.kraza.itgo.com/html/computer_history.htm 6. This inventor, painter, and sculptor sketched ideas for a mechanical adding machine. Answer: Leonardo da Vinci.Ã URL: http://wiki.answers.com 7. Created a punched-card system to direct movements of needles, thread, and fabric. Answer: Joseph Jacquard URL: http://wiki.answers.com 8. Howard Aiken completed this electromechanical computer. Answer: The Mark I later making the Mark II Mark III URL: http://wiki.answers.com 9. Dr. John W. ? and Presper ? created the first fully operational electronic computer called ? (3 answers!) Answers: Mauchly and J presper Eckert created the ENIAC (electrical numerical integrator and calculator) URLs: http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bleniac.htm 10. IBM introduced the IBM Personal computer or PC in what year. Answer: August 1981 URL: http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/pc25/pc25_intro.html 11. Graphic images where each pixel is bit-mapped and take up more memory. Answer: Bitmap Graphic URL: http://wiki.answers.com 12. Graphic images defined by geometric shapes each of which can define the attributes of many pixels. These use less memory. Answer: Vector Graphics URL: http://wiki.answers.com 13. This professor of mathematics joined the Navy in 1943. She led a distinguished career which included developing software for the UNIVAC1. She led the effort to develop the a business language that eventually became COBOL. Answer: Grace Hopper URL: http://www.thocp.net/biographies/hopper_grace.html 14. This object-oriented version of C programming language is used to develop software for PCs such as Fractal Design Painter, Lotus 123, and games. Answer: C++ URL: http://wiki.answers.com 15. The term for communications between remote devices. Answer: Networking URL: http://wiki.answers.com
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Among the various methods of studying human behavior such as naturalistic observation, survey research, correlation research, and experimental method, survey research method is the most appropriate method that can be used to investigate the relationship between violence and alcohol use. Survey research method offers best alternative for the study because it can easily study relationship between violence and alcohol use by easily determining the target population that shall participate in the survey. Moreover, survey research method facilitates collection of data regarding violence and alcohol use behavior (Dube et al, 2001) by use of interviews or questionnaires among the selected survey sample. As a result of obtained information the from survey method, it is easy to draw conclusion regarding alcoholism and violence because survey usually targets similar responses from selected respondents on their take on the research topic. However, precaution should be taken so that carefully categorization of participants to ascertain the accurate and credible results. In other words, to assure validity of the data obtained, participants should have some observable similarity when using survey method. Moreover, results obtained heavily depend on the respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to tell the truth and respond honestly. Therefore, if respondents are dishonest, then the result shall be misleading. In other words, survey method requires full self report from the selected sample. In this case of using survey methodology in studying the relationship between alcohol use and violence, ethical considerations are of essence. One such consideration regards, consent form the respondent that he/she is of opinion that will voluntarily share needed information being requested. More critical on ethical considerations, regards the nature of questions asked to respondents in the sense that if the questions asked are embarrassing nature, the respondent may not be in position to respond honestly (James, 1890). For example, young couple may find it embarrassing to answer questions related to their suffering in marriages unlike the old couples who may be open enough to share. Q2. Difference between negative and positive reinforcement: Negative and Positive Reinforcement Both positive and Negative reinforcement concept is an interesting area in psychological arena. To differentiate, positive reinforcement entails activities aimed at increasing recurrence of a certain behavior because the behavior was rewarded or a person committing the behavior receives what he or she wanted by performing the behavior. For example, hardworking ion college attains good grades and scholarship encourages recurrence of working hard behavior. While on the other hand, negative reinforcement, regards consequences of a behavior that discourages its repetition. For example poor performance, results to poor grades that discouraging laziness behavior in studying. Though, negative reinforcement should not be viewed as punishment because it can be explained and its objective clearly defended as to produce positive results. However, shaping behavior requires integration of both positive and negative reinforcement since they both create a strong behavior conditioning tool determining whether or not a certain behavior is likely to be repeated or changed to a desired one. This is because behavior tendency to be repeated is determined by either positive or negative consequences. For example, working hard in college secure one with good skills for job execution which is a positive consequence, but failing results to low skills and low chances of good job then it becomes a negative consequence to performance behavior. An example from personal life is that of alcohol abuse that was coupled by legal charges. This behavior resulted to negative reinforcement in terms of charges, fines and detainment. In a holistic view, these negative consequences did not mean something bad to mean as I learnt later. On my part and encounter the fines, charges and detainment was the beginning of the new life in terms of positive reinforcement of sobriety that was impossible to attain without couple of negative reinforcements. Though the situation was an integrative scenario in terms of negative and positive reinforcement, ethical consideration needed at this moment is the utilization of common sense. Q3. Which theory of psychological thought: Theories of Psychology Psychology as a scientific disciple that seeks to study, understands, and explains human behavior, for me theory of behavioral Psychology or school of thought for Behaviorism proves to be the most appropriate theory for understanding psychology. Behaviorism states that all behaviors are shaped based on the consequences encountered as a result of the behavior or experiences (Skinner, 1948/1986). For example, when you meet a friend and you smile at him or her and she smiles back at you, this may encourage smiling behavior at friends. But when you smile and friend ignores you, then the behavior is likely to be discouraged. Therefore, consequences that facilitate to shape behaviors are either favorable or unfavorable, but it depend how we perceive and view consequences and experiences. This behaviorism theory is a crucial as a center stage for understanding behavior change in the sense that when practice good habits it leads to lifestyle changes and we are able to live positively. For example, practiced and lived life free from alcohol abuse. Thus, the theory helps my deeper understanding of need for practicing changes from changed lifestyles, we adopt new desirable behaviors. Therefore, I firmly assert that I am what I do. However, although behavioral theory is my preferred theory, environmental issues plays a big role in the acquisition of behavior. For example, social settings, nature of friends and our role models matters. Additionally, it is a point of worth to note the Cognitive Psychology theory remains crucial because informs of internal aspects of human behavior based on consequences of past experiences. Q4. Psychological disorders and their treatment: Anxiety disorders Statistically, over 20 million patients are reported to be affected by anxiety disorders in America. Based on this number of persons that are affected by the anxiety disorder, there is need to pay close attention to the disorder. There are numerous types of anxiety disorders such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Social Phobia, and Panic disorder which are related to stress (David, 2008). In a position of a counselor, I would use the following symptoms to diagnose anxiety disorder as follows: panic disorder patient exhibits hot flashes, racing heartbeat, fears of being death or crazy, nausea and terror. Panic disorder is best treated by a combination of psychological, physical and physiological treatment. Secondly, social phobia anxiety disorder will comprise of symptoms such as confusion, blushing, diarrhea and palpitations which are all physical symptoms. Social phobia can be treated best by behavior and social changes along side use of medication and therapy. The third disorder PTSD is accompanied by symptoms such as avoidance behavior, Hypersensitivity such as sleep, anxious, Re-experiencing an event, Loss of interest in surroundings. Treatment approach to treating PTSD includes exposure therapy, medication, cognitive behavioral therapy, and group therapy. References David, Buss, (2008), Evolutionary psychology: the new science of the mind, Pearson/Allyn and Bacon Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Croft JB, Edwards VJ, Giles WH, (2001): Growing up with parental alcohol abuse: exposure to childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. Child Abuse, 25(12):1627-1640 James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. New York: Holt Skinner, B. F. (1948/1986). Walden II. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall [Psychology: The Evolution of a Science]
Friday, January 10, 2020
The Speech That Changed Everything In The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, Brutus and Mark Antony must win the support of the Romans by making a speech to them. The two former friends become enemies. They share different beliefs in what is right in their eyes. Brutus wants to take the place of Caesar and become powerful. Antony wants justice for his best friend, Caesar. However, Shakespeare pits Mark AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s speech against BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢ speech. AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s speech is persuasive, and heartfelt. He understands the Romans unlike Brutus. BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢ speech is brief and not heartfelt.Mark Antony becomes victorious in winning the hearts of the Romans by having his speech be more rhetoric and effective than BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢ speech. BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Romans, Countrymen, and LoversÃ¢â¬ speech is brief, precise, and gets to the point. He tells the people of Rome that Caesar is ambitious even though he does not prove that he was ambitious. Brutus also tells the Romans that Caesar w ill mostly likely be corrupt because all the other rulers before him were corrupt. For example, Brutus says, Ã¢â¬Å"Had you rather Caesar were living, and die all slaves, than that Caesar were dead, to live all free men? (3. 2. 3-24)Ã¢â¬ He tells the people of Rome that if Caesar was ruler, everyone would be slaves. Brutus tells them that he actually did them a favor. Brutus convinced the Romans, but he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t convince them for long. If he understood how they felt he would have fully convinced them. Mark AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Friends, Romans, CountrymenÃ¢â¬ speech is more rhetoric, persuasive and he put a lot of thought into it. After Brutus called Caesar ambitious, Antony gave excellent reasons on why he actually wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t ambitious. For example, Mark Antony says, Ã¢â¬Å"When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept. Ambition should be made of sterner stuff.Yet Brutus says he was ambitious; And Brutus is an honorable man (3. 2. 94-97). Ã¢â¬ Mark Antony was ab le to turn the word honorable around to mean dishonorable. He put it in a respectful, but sarcastic way. Antony understands how the Romans feel about the death of Julius Caesar. They are angry, confused, and sad just like Antony. Antony relates to the Romans by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar, And I must pause till it come back to me (3. 2. 108-109). Ã¢â¬ By saying these powerful words the Romans and Antony share the same amount of suffering towards CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s death.Mark Antony was able to convince an audience, who at first were against him, to be on his side. Mark Antony and Brutus both tried to make their speeches convincing and persuading. Mark AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s speech was very successful unlike BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢. His speech is also better than BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢. The people of Rome rooted for Brutus until Antony made his speech. If Brutus went after Antony, he might have been the more successful one. The people of Rome will follow anyone which is why th ey rooted for Antony because he spoke last. As Cassius puts it, Ã¢â¬Å"the Romans are but sheep (1. 3. 106). Mark Antony used more rhetorical questions in his speech to help persuade the Romans and Brutus did not. Brutus was less persuasive than Antony. He also treats the Romans like they are nothing but peasants. Antony calls the Romans his friends. Shakespeare does pit Mark AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s speech against BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢ speech. Even though Brutus gained the support of the Romans, it was not for long. Brutus just wanted power so he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really have a passion in his speech. Mark Antony wanted justice for Caesar who made him passionate and sincere in his speech. Overall, Mark AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s speech won the hearts of the Romans.